Over the last 20 years, there has been a huge change in our understanding of pain, in particular pain that recurs or that is chronic.  Because of this, our evaluation and treatment of this type of pain has had to change.  Although it is still vital to assess the physical structures, to establish if the pain is due to tissue damage, recurrent and chronic pain is often due to non-anatomical causes and in accordance with this very latest evidence, patients at our clinic are assessed using the bio-psychosocial approach and this is proving to be substantially more effective in easing pain.  We are finding that patients are less likely to suffer a recurrence of pain and are more independent, requiring less input and treatment in both the short and long term.